All Excel Functions and Formulas (Short Explanations)
In this post, you will find almost all excel functions and formulas in groups with short descriptions.
You may find detailed information about certain formulas in our formulas section.
Lookup and Reference functions 

ADDRESS 
Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet 
AREAS 
Returns the number of areas in a reference 
CHOOSE 
Chooses a value from a list of values 
COLUMN 
Returns the column number of a reference 
COLUMNS 
Returns the number of columns in a reference 
HLOOKUP 
Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell 
HYPERLINK 
Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet 
INDEX 
Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array 
INDIRECT 
Returns a reference indicated by a text value 
LOOKUP 
Looks up values in a vector or array 
MATCH 
Looks up values in a reference or array 
OFFSET 
Returns a reference offset from a given reference 
ROW 
Returns the row number of a reference 
ROWS 
Returns the number of rows in a reference 
RTD 
Retrieves realtime data from a program that supports COM automation 
TRANSPOSE 
Returns the transpose of an array 
VLOOKUP 
Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell 
Financial functions 

ACCRINT 
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest 
ACCRINTM 
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity 
AMORDEGRC 
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient 
AMORLINC 
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period 
COUPDAYBS 
Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date 
COUPDAYS 
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date 
COUPDAYSNC 
Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date 
COUPNCD 
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date 
COUPNUM 
Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date 
COUPPCD 
Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date 
CUMIPMT 
Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods 
CUMPRINC 
Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods 
DB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixeddeclining balance method 
DDB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method you specify 
DISC 
Returns the discount rate for a security 
DOLLARDE 
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number 
DOLLARFR 
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction 
DURATION 
Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments 
EFFECT 
Returns the effective annual interest rate 
FV 
Returns the future value of an investment 
FVSCHEDULE 
Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates 
INTRATE 
Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security 
IPMT 
Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period 
IRR 
Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows 
ISPMT 
Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment 
MDURATION 
Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 
MIRR 
Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates 
NOMINAL 
Returns the annual nominal interest rate 
NPER 
Returns the number of periods for an investment 
NPV 
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate 
ODDFPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period 
ODDFYIELD 
Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period 
ODDLPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period 
ODDLYIELD 
Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period 
PMT 
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity 
PPMT 
Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period 
PRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest 
PRICEDISC 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security 
PRICEMAT 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity 
PV 
Returns the present value of an investment 
RATE 
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity 
RECEIVED 
Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security 
SLN 
Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period 
SYD 
Returns the sumofyears’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period 
TBILLEQ 
Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury bill 
TBILLPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill 
TBILLYIELD 
Returns the yield for a Treasury bill 
VDB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a declining balance method 
XIRR 
Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
XNPV 
Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
YIELD 
Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest 
YIELDDISC 
Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill 
YIELDMAT 
Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity 
Date and Time functions 

DATE 
Returns the serial number of a particular date 
DATEVALUE 
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number 
DAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the month 
DAYS360 
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year 
EDATE 
Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date 
EOMONTH 
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months 
HOUR 
Converts a serial number to an hour 
MINUTE 
Converts a serial number to a minute 
MONTH 
Converts a serial number to a month 
NETWORKDAYS 
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates 
NOW 
Returns the serial number of the current date and time 
SECOND 
Converts a serial number to a second 
TIME 
Returns the serial number of a particular time 
TIMEVALUE 
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number 
TODAY 
Returns the serial number of today’s date 
WEEKDAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the week 
WEEKNUM 
Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year 
WORKDAY 
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays 
YEAR 
Converts a serial number to a year 
YEARFRAC 
Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date 
Math and Trigonometry functions 

ABS 
Returns the absolute value of a number 
ACOS 
Returns the arccosine of a number 
ACOSH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number 
ASIN 
Returns the arcsine of a number 
ASINH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number 
ATAN 
Returns the arctangent of a number 
ATAN2 
Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates 
ATANH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number 
CEILING 
Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 
COMBIN 
Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects 
COS 
Returns the cosine of a number 
COSH 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 
DEGREES 
Converts radians to degrees 
EVEN 
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer 
EXP 
Returns e raised to the power of a given number 
FACT 
Returns the factorial of a number 
FACTDOUBLE 
Returns the double factorial of a number 
FLOOR 
Rounds a number down, toward zero 
GCD 
Returns the greatest common divisor 
INT 
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer 
LCM 
Returns the least common multiple 
LN 
Returns the natural logarithm of a number 
LOG 
Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base 
LOG10 
Returns the base10 logarithm of a number 
MDETERM 
Returns the matrix determinant of an array 
MINVERSE 
Returns the matrix inverse of an array 
MMULT 
Returns the matrix product of two arrays 
MOD 
Returns the remainder from division 
MROUND 
Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple 
MULTINOMIAL 
Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers 
ODD 
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer 
PI 
Returns the value of pi 
POWER 
Returns the result of a number raised to a power 
PRODUCT 
Multiplies its arguments 
QUOTIENT 
Returns the integer portion of a division 
RADIANS 
Converts degrees to radians 
RAND 
Returns a random number between 0 and 1 
RANDBETWEEN 
Returns a random number between the numbers you specify 
ROMAN 
Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text 
ROUND 
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits 
ROUNDDOWN 
Rounds a number down, toward zero 
ROUNDUP 
Rounds a number up, away from zero 
SERIESSUM 
Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula 
SIGN 
Returns the sign of a number 
SIN 
Returns the sine of the given angle 
SINH 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number 
SQRT 
Returns a positive square root 
SQRTPI 
Returns the square root of (number * pi) 
SUBTOTAL 
Returns a subtotal in a list or database 
SUM 
Adds its arguments 
SUMIF 
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria 
SUMPRODUCT 
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components 
SUMSQ 
Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments 
SUMX2MY2 
Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMX2PY2 
Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMXMY2 
Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays 
TAN 
Returns the tangent of a number 
TANH 
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number 
TRUNC 
Truncates a number to an integer 
Statistical functions 

AVEDEV 
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean 
AVERAGE 
Returns the average of its arguments 
AVERAGEA 
Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
BETADIST 
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 
BETAINV 
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution 
BINOMDIST 
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability 
CHIDIST 
Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHIINV 
Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHITEST 
Returns the test for independence 
CONFIDENCE 
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean 
CORREL 
Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets 
COUNT 
Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments 
COUNTA 
Counts how many values are in the list of arguments 
COUNTBLANK 
Counts the number of blank cells within a range 
COUNTIF 
Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria 
COVAR 
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations 
CRITBINOM 
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value 
DEVSQ 
Returns the sum of squares of deviations 
EXPONDIST 
Returns the exponential distribution 
FDIST 
Returns the F probability distribution 
FINV 
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 
FISHER 
Returns the Fisher transformation 
FISHERINV 
Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation 
FORECAST 
Returns a value along a linear trend 
FREQUENCY 
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array 
FTEST 
Returns the result of an Ftest 
GAMMADIST 
Returns the gamma distribution 
GAMMAINV 
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution 
GAMMALN 
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) 
GEOMEAN 
Returns the geometric mean 
GROWTH 
Returns values along an exponential trend 
HARMEAN 
Returns the harmonic mean 
HYPGEOMDIST 
Returns the hypergeometric distribution 
INTERCEPT 
Returns the intercept of the linear regression line 
KURT 
Returns the kurtosis of a data set 
LARGE 
Returns the kth largest value in a data set 
LINEST 
Returns the parameters of a linear trend 
LOGEST 
Returns the parameters of an exponential trend 
LOGINV 
Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution 
LOGNORMDIST 
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 
MAX 
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments 
MAXA 
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
MEDIAN 
Returns the median of the given numbers 
MIN 
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments 
MINA 
Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
MODE 
Returns the most common value in a data set 
NEGBINOMDIST 
Returns the negative binomial distribution 
NORMDIST 
Returns the normal cumulative distribution 
NORMINV 
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution 
NORMSDIST 
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NORMSINV 
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution 
PEARSON 
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 
PERCENTILE 
Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 
PERCENTRANK 
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 
PERMUT 
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects 
POISSON 
Returns the Poisson distribution 
PROB 
Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits 
QUARTILE 
Returns the quartile of a data set 
RANK 
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RSQ 
Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 
SKEW 
Returns the skewness of a distribution 
SLOPE 
Returns the slope of the linear regression line 
SMALL 
Returns the kth smallest value in a data set 
STANDARDIZE 
Returns a normalized value 
STDEV 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 
STDEVA 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STDEVP 
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population 
STDEVPA 
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STEYX 
Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue for each x in the regression 
TDIST 
Returns the Student’s tdistribution 
TINV 
Returns the inverse of the Student’s tdistribution 
TREND 
Returns values along a linear trend 
TRIMMEAN 
Returns the mean of the interior of a data set 
TTEST 
Returns the probability associated with a Student’s ttest 
VAR 
Estimates variance based on a sample 
VARA 
Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 
VARP 
Calculates variance based on the entire population 
VARPA 
Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
WEIBULL 
Returns the Weibull distribution 
ZTEST 
Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
Database and List Management functions 

DAVERAGE 
Returns the average of selected database entries 
DCOUNT 
Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database 
DCOUNTA 
Counts nonblank cells in a database 
DGET 
Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria 
DMAX 
Returns the maximum value from selected database entries 
DMIN 
Returns the minimum value from selected database entries 
DPRODUCT 
Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database 
DSTDEV 
Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries 
DSTDEVP 
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries 
DSUM 
Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria 
DVAR 
Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries 
DVARP 
Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries 
GETPIVOTDATA 
Returns data stored in a PivotTable 
Text and Data functions 

ASC 
Changes fullwidth (doublebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to halfwidth (singlebyte) characters 
BAHTTEXT 
Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format 
CHAR 
Returns the character specified by the code number 
CLEAN 
Removes all nonprintable characters from text 
CODE 
Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string 
CONCATENATE 
Joins several text items into one text item 
DOLLAR 
Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format 
EXACT 
Checks to see if two text values are identical 
FIND 
Finds one text value within another (casesensitive) 
FIXED 
Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals 
JIS 
Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters 
LEFT 
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value 
LEN 
Returns the number of characters in a text string 
LOWER 
Converts text to lowercase 
MID 
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify 
PHONETIC 
Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string 
PROPER 
Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value 
REPLACE 
Replaces characters within text 
REPT 
Repeats text a given number of times 
RIGHT 
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value 
SEARCH 
Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive) 
SUBSTITUTE 
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string 
T 
Converts its arguments to text 
TEXT 
Formats a number and converts it to text 
TRIM 
Removes spaces from text 
UPPER 
Converts text to uppercase 
VALUE 
Converts a text argument to a number 
Logical functions 

AND 
Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE 
FALSE 
Returns the logical value FALSE 
NOT 
Reverses the logic of its argument 
OR 
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE 
TRUE 
Returns the logical value TRUE 
Information functions 

CELL 
Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell 
ERROR.TYPE 
Returns a number corresponding to an error type 
INFO 
Returns information about the current operating environment 
ISBLANK 
Returns TRUE if the value is blank 
ISERR 
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A 
ISERROR 
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value 
ISEVEN 
Returns TRUE if the number is even 
ISLOGICAL 
Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value 
ISNA 
Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value 
ISNONTEXT 
Returns TRUE if the value is not text 
ISNUMBER 
Returns TRUE if the value is a number 
ISODD 
Returns TRUE if the number is odd 
ISREF 
Returns TRUE if the value is a reference 
ISTEXT 
Returns TRUE if the value is text 
N 
Returns a value converted to a number 
NA 
Returns the error value #N/A 
TYPE 
Returns a number indicating the data type of a value 
Engineering functions 

BESSELI 
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) 
BESSELJ 
Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) 
BESSELK 
Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) 
BESSELY 
Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) 
BIN2DEC 
Converts a binary number to decimal 
BIN2HEX 
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal 
BIN2OCT 
Converts a binary number to octal 
COMPLEX 
Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number 
CONVERT 
Converts a number from one measurement system to another 
DEC2BIN 
Converts a decimal number to binary 
DEC2HEX 
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal 
DEC2OCT 
Converts a decimal number to octal 
DELTA 
Tests whether two values are equal 
ERF 
Returns the error function 
ERFC 
Returns the complementary error function 
GESTEP 
Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value 
HEX2BIN 
Converts a hexadecimal number to binary 
HEX2DEC 
Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal 
HEX2OCT 
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal 
IMABS 
Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number 
IMAGINARY 
Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number 
IMARGUMENT 
Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians 
IMCONJUGATE 
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number 
IMCOS 
Returns the cosine of a complex number 
IMDIV 
Returns the quotient of two complex numbers 
IMEXP 
Returns the exponential of a complex number 
IMLN 
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG10 
Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG2 
Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number 
IMPOWER 
Returns a complex number raised to an integer power 
IMPRODUCT 
Returns the product of from 2 to 29 complex numbers 
IMREAL 
Returns the real coefficient of a complex number 
IMSIN 
Returns the sine of a complex number 
IMSQRT 
Returns the square root of a complex number 
IMSUB 
Returns the difference between two complex numbers 
IMSUM 
Returns the sum of complex numbers 
OCT2BIN 
Converts an octal number to binary 
OCT2DEC 
Converts an octal number to decimal 
OCT2HEX 
Converts an octal number to hexadecimal 
Lookup and Reference functions 

ADDRESS 
Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet 
AREAS 
Returns the number of areas in a reference 
CHOOSE 
Chooses a value from a list of values 
COLUMN 
Returns the column number of a reference 
COLUMNS 
Returns the number of columns in a reference 
HLOOKUP 
Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell 
HYPERLINK 
Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet 
INDEX 
Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array 
INDIRECT 
Returns a reference indicated by a text value 
LOOKUP 
Looks up values in a vector or array 
MATCH 
Looks up values in a reference or array 
OFFSET 
Returns a reference offset from a given reference 
ROW 
Returns the row number of a reference 
ROWS 
Returns the number of rows in a reference 
RTD 
Retrieves realtime data from a program that supports COM automation 
TRANSPOSE 
Returns the transpose of an array 
VLOOKUP 
Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell 
Financial functions 

ACCRINT 
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest 
ACCRINTM 
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity 
AMORDEGRC 
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient 
AMORLINC 
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period 
COUPDAYBS 
Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date 
COUPDAYS 
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date 
COUPDAYSNC 
Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date 
COUPNCD 
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date 
COUPNUM 
Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date 
COUPPCD 
Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date 
CUMIPMT 
Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods 
CUMPRINC 
Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods 
DB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixeddeclining balance method 
DDB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method you specify 
DISC 
Returns the discount rate for a security 
DOLLARDE 
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number 
DOLLARFR 
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction 
DURATION 
Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments 
EFFECT 
Returns the effective annual interest rate 
FV 
Returns the future value of an investment 
FVSCHEDULE 
Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates 
INTRATE 
Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security 
IPMT 
Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period 
IRR 
Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows 
ISPMT 
Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment 
MDURATION 
Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 
MIRR 
Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates 
NOMINAL 
Returns the annual nominal interest rate 
NPER 
Returns the number of periods for an investment 
NPV 
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate 
ODDFPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period 
ODDFYIELD 
Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period 
ODDLPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period 
ODDLYIELD 
Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period 
PMT 
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity 
PPMT 
Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period 
PRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest 
PRICEDISC 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security 
PRICEMAT 
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity 
PV 
Returns the present value of an investment 
RATE 
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity 
RECEIVED 
Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security 
SLN 
Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period 
SYD 
Returns the sumofyears’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period 
TBILLEQ 
Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury bill 
TBILLPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill 
TBILLYIELD 
Returns the yield for a Treasury bill 
VDB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a declining balance method 
XIRR 
Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
XNPV 
Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
YIELD 
Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest 
YIELDDISC 
Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill 
YIELDMAT 
Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity 
Date and Time functions 

DATE 
Returns the serial number of a particular date 
DATEVALUE 
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number 
DAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the month 
DAYS360 
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year 
EDATE 
Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date 
EOMONTH 
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months 
HOUR 
Converts a serial number to an hour 
MINUTE 
Converts a serial number to a minute 
MONTH 
Converts a serial number to a month 
NETWORKDAYS 
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates 
NOW 
Returns the serial number of the current date and time 
SECOND 
Converts a serial number to a second 
TIME 
Returns the serial number of a particular time 
TIMEVALUE 
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number 
TODAY 
Returns the serial number of today’s date 
WEEKDAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the week 
WEEKNUM 
Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year 
WORKDAY 
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays 
YEAR 
Converts a serial number to a year 
YEARFRAC 
Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date 
Math and Trigonometry functions 

ABS 
Returns the absolute value of a number 
ACOS 
Returns the arccosine of a number 
ACOSH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number 
ASIN 
Returns the arcsine of a number 
ASINH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number 
ATAN 
Returns the arctangent of a number 
ATAN2 
Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates 
ATANH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number 
CEILING 
Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 
COMBIN 
Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects 
COS 
Returns the cosine of a number 
COSH 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 
DEGREES 
Converts radians to degrees 
EVEN 
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer 
EXP 
Returns e raised to the power of a given number 
FACT 
Returns the factorial of a number 
FACTDOUBLE 
Returns the double factorial of a number 
FLOOR 
Rounds a number down, toward zero 
GCD 
Returns the greatest common divisor 
INT 
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer 
LCM 
Returns the least common multiple 
LN 
Returns the natural logarithm of a number 
LOG 
Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base 
LOG10 
Returns the base10 logarithm of a number 
MDETERM 
Returns the matrix determinant of an array 
MINVERSE 
Returns the matrix inverse of an array 
MMULT 
Returns the matrix product of two arrays 
MOD 
Returns the remainder from division 
MROUND 
Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple 
MULTINOMIAL 
Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers 
ODD 
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer 
PI 
Returns the value of pi 
POWER 
Returns the result of a number raised to a power 
PRODUCT 
Multiplies its arguments 
QUOTIENT 
Returns the integer portion of a division 
RADIANS 
Converts degrees to radians 
RAND 
Returns a random number between 0 and 1 
RANDBETWEEN 
Returns a random number between the numbers you specify 
ROMAN 
Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text 
ROUND 
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits 
ROUNDDOWN 
Rounds a number down, toward zero 
ROUNDUP 
Rounds a number up, away from zero 
SERIESSUM 
Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula 
SIGN 
Returns the sign of a number 
SIN 
Returns the sine of the given angle 
SINH 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number 
SQRT 
Returns a positive square root 
SQRTPI 
Returns the square root of (number * pi) 
SUBTOTAL 
Returns a subtotal in a list or database 
SUM 
Adds its arguments 
SUMIF 
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria 
SUMPRODUCT 
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components 
SUMSQ 
Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments 
SUMX2MY2 
Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMX2PY2 
Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMXMY2 
Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays 
TAN 
Returns the tangent of a number 
TANH 
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number 
TRUNC 
Truncates a number to an integer 
Statistical functions 

AVEDEV 
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean 
AVERAGE 
Returns the average of its arguments 
AVERAGEA 
Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
BETADIST 
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 
BETAINV 
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution 
BINOMDIST 
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability 
CHIDIST 
Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHIINV 
Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHITEST 
Returns the test for independence 
CONFIDENCE 
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean 
CORREL 
Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets 
COUNT 
Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments 
COUNTA 
Counts how many values are in the list of arguments 
COUNTBLANK 
Counts the number of blank cells within a range 
COUNTIF 
Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria 
COVAR 
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations 
CRITBINOM 
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value 
DEVSQ 
Returns the sum of squares of deviations 
EXPONDIST 
Returns the exponential distribution 
FDIST 
Returns the F probability distribution 
FINV 
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 
FISHER 
Returns the Fisher transformation 
FISHERINV 
Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation 
FORECAST 
Returns a value along a linear trend 
FREQUENCY 
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array 
FTEST 
Returns the result of an Ftest 
GAMMADIST 
Returns the gamma distribution 
GAMMAINV 
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution 
GAMMALN 
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) 
GEOMEAN 
Returns the geometric mean 
GROWTH 
Returns values along an exponential trend 
HARMEAN 
Returns the harmonic mean 
HYPGEOMDIST 
Returns the hypergeometric distribution 
INTERCEPT 
Returns the intercept of the linear regression line 
KURT 
Returns the kurtosis of a data set 
LARGE 
Returns the kth largest value in a data set 
LINEST 
Returns the parameters of a linear trend 
LOGEST 
Returns the parameters of an exponential trend 
LOGINV 
Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution 
LOGNORMDIST 
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 
MAX 
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments 
MAXA 
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
MEDIAN 
Returns the median of the given numbers 
MIN 
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments 
MINA 
Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
MODE 
Returns the most common value in a data set 
NEGBINOMDIST 
Returns the negative binomial distribution 
NORMDIST 
Returns the normal cumulative distribution 
NORMINV 
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution 
NORMSDIST 
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NORMSINV 
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution 
PEARSON 
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 
PERCENTILE 
Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 
PERCENTRANK 
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 
PERMUT 
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects 
POISSON 
Returns the Poisson distribution 
PROB 
Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits 
QUARTILE 
Returns the quartile of a data set 
RANK 
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RSQ 
Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 
SKEW 
Returns the skewness of a distribution 
SLOPE 
Returns the slope of the linear regression line 
SMALL 
Returns the kth smallest value in a data set 
STANDARDIZE 
Returns a normalized value 
STDEV 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 
STDEVA 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STDEVP 
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population 
STDEVPA 
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STEYX 
Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue for each x in the regression 
TDIST 
Returns the Student’s tdistribution 
TINV 
Returns the inverse of the Student’s tdistribution 
TREND 
Returns values along a linear trend 
TRIMMEAN 
Returns the mean of the interior of a data set 
TTEST 
Returns the probability associated with a Student’s ttest 
VAR 
Estimates variance based on a sample 
VARA 
Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 
VARP 
Calculates variance based on the entire population 
VARPA 
Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
WEIBULL 
Returns the Weibull distribution 
ZTEST 
Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
Database and List Management functions 

DAVERAGE 
Returns the average of selected database entries 
DCOUNT 
Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database 
DCOUNTA 
Counts nonblank cells in a database 
DGET 
Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria 
DMAX 
Returns the maximum value from selected database entries 
DMIN 
Returns the minimum value from selected database entries 
DPRODUCT 
Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database 
DSTDEV 
Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries 
DSTDEVP 
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries 
DSUM 
Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria 
DVAR 
Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries 
DVARP 
Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries 
GETPIVOTDATA 
Returns data stored in a PivotTable 
Text and Data functions 

ASC 
Changes fullwidth (doublebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to halfwidth (singlebyte) characters 
BAHTTEXT 
Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format 
CHAR 
Returns the character specified by the code number 
CLEAN 
Removes all nonprintable characters from text 
CODE 
Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string 
CONCATENATE 
Joins several text items into one text item 
DOLLAR 
Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format 
EXACT 
Checks to see if two text values are identical 
FIND 
Finds one text value within another (casesensitive) 
FIXED 
Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals 
JIS 
Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters 
LEFT 
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value 
LEN 
Returns the number of characters in a text string 
LOWER 
Converts text to lowercase 
MID 
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify 
PHONETIC 
Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string 
PROPER 
Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value 
REPLACE 
Replaces characters within text 
REPT 
Repeats text a given number of times 
RIGHT 
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value 
SEARCH 
Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive) 
SUBSTITUTE 
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string 
T 
Converts its arguments to text 
TEXT 
Formats a number and converts it to text 
TRIM 
Removes spaces from text 
UPPER 
Converts text to uppercase 
VALUE 
Converts a text argument to a number 
Logical functions 

AND 
Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE 
FALSE 
Returns the logical value FALSE 
IF 
Specifies a logical test to perform 
NOT 
Reverses the logic of its argument 
OR 
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE 
TRUE 
Returns the logical value TRUE 
Information functions 

CELL 
Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell 
ERROR.TYPE 
Returns a number corresponding to an error type 
INFO 
Returns information about the current operating environment 
ISBLANK 
Returns TRUE if the value is blank 
ISERR 
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A 
ISERROR 
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value 
ISEVEN 
Returns TRUE if the number is even 
ISLOGICAL 
Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value 
ISNA 
Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value 
ISNONTEXT 
Returns TRUE if the value is not text 
ISNUMBER 
Returns TRUE if the value is a number 
ISODD 
Returns TRUE if the number is odd 
ISREF 
Returns TRUE if the value is a reference 
ISTEXT 
Returns TRUE if the value is text 
N 
Returns a value converted to a number 
NA 
Returns the error value #N/A 
TYPE 
Returns a number indicating the data type of a value 
Engineering functions 

BESSELI 
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) 
BESSELJ 
Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) 
BESSELK 
Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) 
BESSELY 
Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) 
BIN2DEC 
Converts a binary number to decimal 
BIN2HEX 
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal 
BIN2OCT 
Converts a binary number to octal 
COMPLEX 
Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number 
CONVERT 
Converts a number from one measurement system to another 
DEC2BIN 
Converts a decimal number to binary 
DEC2HEX 
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal 
DEC2OCT 
Converts a decimal number to octal 
DELTA 
Tests whether two values are equal 
ERF 
Returns the error function 
ERFC 
Returns the complementary error function 
GESTEP 
Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value 
HEX2BIN 
Converts a hexadecimal number to binary 
HEX2DEC 
Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal 
HEX2OCT 
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal 
IMABS 
Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number 
IMAGINARY 
Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number 
IMARGUMENT 
Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians 
IMCONJUGATE 
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number 
IMCOS 
Returns the cosine of a complex number 
IMDIV 
Returns the quotient of two complex numbers 
IMEXP 
Returns the exponential of a complex number 
IMLN 
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG10 
Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG2 
Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number 
IMPOWER 
Returns a complex number raised to an integer power 
IMPRODUCT 
Returns the product of from 2 to 29 complex numbers 
IMREAL 
Returns the real coefficient of a complex number 
IMSIN 
Returns the sine of a complex number 
IMSQRT 
Returns the square root of a complex number 
IMSUB 
Returns the difference between two complex numbers 
IMSUM 
Returns the sum of complex numbers 
OCT2BIN 
Converts an octal number to binary 
OCT2DEC 
Converts an octal number to decimal 
OCT2HEX 
Converts an octal number to hexadecimal 